The staging of non-competitive matches (NCMs) by individuals and private organisations has emerged as an industry in the last 10-15 years. The globalisation of pre and mid-season NCMs is increasing, particularly cross-border games played between lower profile clubs, but there is little or no regulation of NCMs by private or public stakeholders. These games typically are less regulated by football’s governing bodies but are offered on regulated gambling markets and unregulated markets both inside and outside the EU, and easier to fix.
- Identify new examples of match-fixing in club football friendlies in Europe
- Understand what regulation of friendly club matches in Europe currently exists
- Provide survey evidence of players experiences of being approached in friendlies
- Understand how the friendly and training camp industry functions, and identify key actors and stakeholders?
- Understand if/why friendlies are easier to fix than competitive matches and is this due to existing regulation (or lack of)?
- Who are the main actors behind fixing?
- Develop recommendations for governance and educational tools to warn players of dangers
University of Nicosia Research Foundation